数组,可以说是PHP的数据应用中较重要的一种方式。PHP的数组函数众多,下面是我学习的小结,借此记之,便于以后鉴之。
1. 数组定义
数组的定义使用 array()方式定义,可以定义空数组:
<?php
$number = array(1,3,5,7,9);
//定义空数组
$result = array();
$color =array("red","blue","green");
//自定义键值
$language = (1=>"English",3=>"Chinese",5=>"Franch");
//定义二维数组
$two = array(
"color"=>array("red","blue"), //用逗号结尾
"week"=>array("Monday","Friday") //最后一句没有标点
);
?>

2. 创建数组
compact()
compact()函数——将一个或多个变量(包含数组)转换为数组:array compact ( mixed $varname [, mixed $… ] )。
<?PHP
$number = "1,3,5,7,9";
$string = "I'm PHPer";
$array = array("And","You?");
$newArray = compact("number","string","array");
print_r ($newArray);
?>
compact()函数用于将两个或多个变量转换为数组,当然也包含数组变量。其参数是变量的名称而非带有$全名。相反的函数是extract()作用顾名思义就是将数组转换为单个的字符串,键值作为其字符串名称,数组值作为字符串的值。
运行结果:

Array (
[number] => 1,3,5,7,9
[string] => I'm PHPer
[array] => Array ( [0] => And [1] => You? )
)
array_combine()
array_combine()——将两个数组重组成一个数组,一个作键值一个做的值:array array_combine ( array $keys , array $values )
<?PHP
$number = array("1","3","5","7","9");
$array = array("I","Am","A","PHP","er");
$newArray = array_combine($number,$array);
print_r ($newArray);
?>
array_combine函数不多说了,谁看了都明白。
运行结果:
Array ( [1] => I [3] => Am [5] => A [7] => PHP [9] => er )
range()
range()函数——创建指定范围的数组:
<?PHP
$array1 = range(0,100,10);//0为起始值,100为结束值,10为步进值(默认步进值为1).
print_r($array1);
echo"<br />";
$array2 = range("A","Z");
print_r($array2);
echo "<br />";
$array3 = range("z","a");
print_r($array3);
?>
array_fill()
array_fill()函数——填充数组函数:
<?PHP
$array = range(1,10);
$fillarray = range("a","d");
$arrayFilled = array_fill(0,5,$fillarray);//这里的$fillarray可以是字符串,如"test".
echo "<pre>";
print_r ($arrayFilled);
echo "</pre>";
$keys = array("string","2",9,"SDK","PK");
$array2 = array_fill_keys($keys,"testing");
echo "<pre>";
print_r ($array2);
echo "</pre>";
?>
运行结果:
Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[0] => a
[1] => b
[2] => c
[3] => d
)

[1] => Array
(
[0] => a
[1] => b
[2] => c
[3] => d
)

[2] => Array
(
[0] => a
[1] => b
[2] => c
[3] => d
)

[3] => Array
(
[0] => a
[1] => b
[2] => c
[3] => d
)

[4] => Array
(
[0] => a
[1] => b
[2] => c
[3] => d
)

)
Array
(
[string] => testing
[2] => testing
[9] => testing
[SDK] => testing
[PK] => testing
)

3. 数组的遍历
foreach遍历
foreach (array_expression as $value){}
foreach (array_expression as $key => $value){}

<?PHP
$speed = array(50,120,180,240,380);
foreach($speed as $keys=>$values){
echo $keys."=>".$values."<br />";
}
?>
运行结果:
0=>50
1=>120
2=>180
3=>240
4=>380
while循环遍历
while循环遍历一般结合list函数,以下是实例
<?PHP
$staff = array(
array("姓名","性别","年龄"),
array("小张","男",24),
array("小王","女",25),
array("小李","男",23)
);
echo "<table border=2>";
while(list($keys,$value) = each($staff)){
list($name,$sex,$age) = $value;
echo "<tr><td>$name</td><td>$sex</td><td>$age</td></tr>";
}
echo "</table>";
?>
for循环遍历
<?PHP
$speed = range(0,220,20);
for($i =0;$i<count($speed);$i++) {
echo $speed[$i]." ";
}
?>
运行结果:
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
4. 数组的指针操作
涉及函数包括reset、prev、end、next、current、each。
实例一:next 与 prev
<?PHP
$speed = range(0,220,20);
echo current($speed);//输出当前位置的值(在数组的开头位置)
$i = rand(1,11);
while($i–){
next($speed);//指针从当前位置向后移动一位
}
echo current($speed);//输出当前位置的值
echo "<br />";
echo prev($speed);//输出前一位置数组值
echo "<br />";
echo reset($speed);//重置数组的指针,将指针指向起始位置
echo "<br />";
echo end($speed);//输出最后位置的数组值
echo "<br />";
?>
运行结果:
0220
200
0
220
实例二:each函数指针操作
<?PHP
$speed = range(0,200,40);
echo "each实现指针下移 <br />";
echo "0挡的速度是".current(each($speed))."<br />";
echo "1挡的速度是".current(each($speed))."<br />";
echo "2挡的速度是".current(each($speed))."<br />";
echo "3挡的速度是".current(each($speed))."<br />";
echo "4挡的速度是".current(each($speed))."<br />";
echo "5挡的速度是".current(each($speed))."<br />";
echo "使用each函数实现数组指针的移动,进行数组遍历 <br />";
reset($speed);//这里是将数组指针指向数组首
while(list($key,$value)=each($speed)){
echo $key."=>".$value."<br />";
}
?>
运行结果:
each实现指针下移
0挡的速度是0
1挡的速度是40
2挡的速度是80
3挡的速度是120
4挡的速度是160
5挡的速度是200
使用each函数实现数组指针的移动,进行数组遍历
0=>0
1=>40
2=>80
3=>120
4=>160
5=>200

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注